Gulf of Mottama

မုတ္တမ ပင်လယ်ကွေ့

National Designation

Ramsar Site (Wetland of International Importance)

Designation Type


Established Year


Area (ha)


Ecosystem and Topology

Bio unit


Bio unit N


Habitat types


Other Attributes

Designation Date




Protection level


Site governance

Not Reported

Management authority



The Gulf of Mottama is situated at the mouth of the Sittaung River of the larger Gulf of Mottama. The designated area was extended from 42,500 hectares to 161,030 ha in 2020, to include a greater area of this unique estuarine mudflat environment. The Gulf has a tidal range of between six and seven metres; the mouth, which is around 100 kilometres wide, narrows into a funnel-shaped bay to produce a powerful bore phenomenon that can reach heights of over a metre on spring tides in the upper estuary. As a result the tidal mudflats of the Gulf are among the largest in the world. The Site supports a large number of species including marine fish, invertebrates and up to 150,000 migratory waterbirds in the non-breeding season. Among these waterbirds is the critically endangered spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus), of which the Site perhaps hosts more than half of the remaining global population. The Gulf of Mottama also supports the livelihoods of thousands of people by providing fish for local and regional consumption.

Natural Resources

It is one of the most dynamic estuaries in Myanmar and within its intertidal mudflat system, shore birds, fish and other species are observed. Spoon-billed sandpiper (CR), Normann’s greenshanks (EN), Great knots and over 70 waterbird species are recorded in the area and it is also a winter migratory site for birds. About 40 fish species are recorded with other 30 species. Crab species and large population of benthic invertebrates are also observed.

Key species



Myanma Protected Areas: Context,Current Status, and Challenges

This publication presents the information collected on Myanmar protected areas (PAs), with the objective of mobilising national and international support for cost-effective initiatives, innovative approaches and targeted research implemented by non-State actors in collaboration with authorities and communities in sites needing priority
conservation actions.